Vladimir Putin's economic strategy has been to reclaim the vast natural resources of the country, especially oil and gas, to help Russia overcome the economic collapse of 1998. 2014 Oil prices fall, (Opportunely for its international opponents) put an end to the meteoric prosperity of Russia. However, Gazprom, the national company, still supplies a large part of the gas needs of Europe and Asia.
Vladimir Putin, since his election to the presidency of the Russian Federation in 2000, imposed his control on public institutions and the media. The political opposition is courageous but symbolic. Putin served two presidential terms, then a four-year term as prime minister with his accomplice Medvedev as presidential, before quietly resuming the presidency in 2012. The various reforms, including the extension of the presidential term, should allow him To stay until 2024. Those who currently govern Russia, along with Mr Putin, have not planned to share. It is useful to read, on this subject, the analyzes of the political scientist Oleg Grechenevsky about the circles of power in Russia.
Russia's renewed influence on the international scene has rekindled a new cold war with Washington. The various military and political aggressions of the American power, on the borders of the Federation and the interior, have resurrected Russian nationalism and a certain irritation towards the European satellite countries of Washington, Germany and France in particular. Moscow's frustration is growing. The consequence, not at all unlikely, could be, in a favorable international context, a Russian military invasion in Western Europe; as in 1814, when Russian soldiers were marching on parisian boulevards
Among the aggressive operations from Americans and their allies, was the overthrow of the pro-Russian government in Ukraine by "pro-democracy" demonstrations, carefully orchestrated by associations funded in the United States in early 2014;
It is also easy to find in the west the origin of the tension built by the Western media around the return of the Crimea, although as Russian-speaking as Russophone, within the Russian bosom;
Finally, the rise of the "Islamic State" in Syria was intended to overthrow the regime of Bashar al-Assad and to deprive Russia of its only naval base in the Mediterranean as well as a transit territory for its oil and gas to its European customers.
Vladimir Putin has been able to react firmly and has since successfully exploited the position of defender of the homeland in order to gain the support of the Russian population. The president, a strong leader, pulled Russia out of the economic, social and political chaos of the 90s, in the late Yeltsin years. But Putin represents only the top of the iceberg. He represents a number of powerful men, including KGB circles in Moscow and St. Petersburg, who actually control the country's immense natural resources. Those who oppose or compete with Mr Putin and his friends end up in prison at best, like the former oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who spent 10 years in prison after being arrested in 2003.
Born in St. Petersburg in 1952, Vladimir Putin began his career at the KGB, the security service of the Soviet era, where he worked for a time as a spy in the GDR. From 1990, he worked in the municipal administration of St. Petersburg, adviser to his former law professor who became mayor. In August 1999, he was already Prime Minister, ready to succeed to President Yeltsin.
Since winning the presidential elections in May 2000, Putin has remained popular, either by launching a tough offensive against the Chechen rebels and reacting firmly to the actions of Western services (military actions on the borders of Federation or attempts at "cultural" subversion of Russian society). It seems that Mr. Putin, conservative and authoritarian, matches political expectations of Russian society. Parliament having opportunely voted to extend the presidential terms of four to six years, Putin should be able to remain in power until 2024.
The history of Russia began in the 9th Century, with the foundation of the principality of Kiev (Ruthenia), which extends from the present Ukraine, to Belarus and western Russia. It is the first consequent state in Slavic land. Oleg, ruler of Novgorod, founded Kiev. In 988, Prince Vladimir was converted into the religion of the Byzantine empire, Orthodox Christianity, which became a state religion, the essential foundation of Russian national unity. The Tatars, of Mongolian origin, invaded Russia in the 13th century and were not defeated until the end of the 15th century. The Tatar Mongols, as Russians call them, racially marked Russia. Mongolian traits are found on the faces of many contemporary Russians.
Ivan IV, "the Terrible", was the first Tsar proclaimed in 1547. A model of the Russian autocrat, he set up a centralized administration and launched the more or less organized "Cossacks", horsemen and peasants, to the conquest of Territories of Siberia. The Romanov dynasty was founded at the beginning of the 17th century (1613). Peter the Great (1682-1725) built St. Petersburg, the European city of the Russian Empire. Catherine II of Russia (1762-1796), defeated the Ottoman Empire and the Khanate of Crimea. The Russian Empire reached the Black Sea and annexed part of Poland. Ukraine and "White Russia", now, were Russian. Siberia was conquered to the Pacific Ocean, reached in 1640. Alaska was colonized in the 1740s.
Peter the Great created a modern, centralized army, navy and administration. Russia conquered Estonia and Latvia to reach the Baltic Sea and Europe, and extended to Crimea, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and part of Poland. All these countries are therefore still considered as part of the pre-square of Russia.
It was Tsar Alexander's Russia who put an end to the Napoleonic Empire, which had the imprudence of trying to invade it by the crushing of the imperial army in 1812. The lesson was not adopted by the armies Germans in 1941. It is too soon forgotten that in 1814 the Russian troops already occupied Paris.
The ideas of revolutionary France won the Tsar officers. The 1825 "Decembrists" revolt aborted, it was a first alert. The regime of serfdom was officially abolished in 1861, but the condition of the peasants changed little; The aristocracy needed serfdom to assume its crazy expenses in Europe ... Industrialization began, creating a minority of workers permeable to revolutionary ideas. Central Asian steppes and the former Ottoman territories were annexed at the end of the 19th century, which were difficult to assimilate into the Russian Empire. These Muslim territories are today the weak point of Russia.
Marxist party was founded in 1897, divided between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. The Russian empire stretched as far as Manchuria, clashed with Japan, and suffered a defeat at the battle of Tsushima on 27 and 28 May 1905. Pietr Stolypin led an authoritarian government, firmly reacting to the attempts of revolutionary destabilization of society While at the same time beginning the necessary reforms to cut the grass under the feet of the Communists. He bothered powerful people, he got killed.
The army, loyalist, saved the tsarist regime by the murderous shooting of "Red Sunday". But the Liberal, Democratic and even revolutionary opposition was growing. The general strike of October 1905 caused the czar to be ceded. He had to govern with the Parliament, the Duma.
In 1914, it was World War I, Russia went to war against Germany and Austria-Hungary to help its Serbian ally. Russia was committed, alongside the British and French against Germany, against a backdrop of rivalry with Austria in the Balkans. The engagement of the Russian troops in Poland was a failure, the troops withdraw, the war was mired. Tsar Nicholas II refused to ask for an armistice. German-American financial circles wanted the revolution for reasons difficult to evoke. Lenin passage towards Russia was organized to put in place agents who would overthrow the tsarist regime. Germans sent Agent Lenin to neutralize Russia by revolutionary chaos. Germany, thus cleared of the eastern front, could throw all its forces to the west, and win the war. Berlin would then only have to overthrow the bolshevik government, barely installed, and re-establish a German-speaking member of the imperial family in power. Social movements erupted everywhere, troops refused to repress the demonstrations, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. Alexandr Kerensky ran a government. The Bolsheviks overthrew power by arms, on 7 November 1917, in the capital, St. Petersburg.
The coup was funded by German-American bankers. This was what has been called the "revolution" of October ... In the Constituent Assembly, the Bolsheviks were a minority. Lenin therefore ordered the liquidation of the socialist majority. The Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government, abolished Parliament, moved the capital to Moscow in 1918, and established a dictatorship of the "proletariat." Lenin inaugurated gulags, and removed all those who opposed him.
The Tsar, his wife, the crown prince and his four sisters were held prisoners in the Ipatiev house in Yekaterinburg, in the Urals. On Lenin's orders, they were massacred, with their doctors and their servants, and then cut up in the night of July 16-17, 1918, so that their bodies could not be found. The Communist Party eliminated traces of Holy Russia. The stateless revolution took hold for 70 years, bringing, as a result, all the peoples it would subjugate to the world.
Peace was signed with the Germans in Brest-Litovsk (Belarus), ending the Russian engagement, as initially promised to the Germans by their agent, Lenin. The Bolsheviks took three years to eliminate the patriots ("White Russians") who still resisted this international coup before attacking Poland without success.
Lenin died in 1924. Joseph Stalin took control of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), created in December 22nd, 1922, by eliminating all its rivals. He was a paranoid and bloody dictator from 1929 until his death in 1953, forcing industrialization and the adoption of a collectivist economy in the territories he dominated. In 1939, Stalin agreed with Hitler, with whom he concluded a non-aggression pact. Secret clauses determined the partition of Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Baltic states. The USSR also attacked Finland, but without success, during the "Winter War".
Hitler did not learn the lesson of the Napoleonic debacle of 1812. He attacked USSR, by surprise, in June 1941 (Operation Barbarossa). The German armies marched to Moscow. The Russian army, exhausted by the Stalinist purges, could not cope. Stalin then decided to ally himself with the Americans to be supplied with weapons, and to sacrifice millions of men to defeat Hitler, at all costs. From the battle of Stalingrad (a symbol city) in January 1943, at the cost of enormous losses, the Soviet army rejected the Germans. Then it's winter. The German army froze. Like a roller coaster, the Soviet army advanced westward to Berlin in May 1945. 30 million people died, half of them were civilians.
The Soviet armies imposed their domination over the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as on the eastern part of Germany and Austria, as agreed with the Americans during the Yalta Conference. When the USSR began to extend its revolution in China and the Middle East, it met US ambitions. This was the beginning of the "Cold War", a constant struggle on all continents, from the fifties. The two Powers fought by interposed peoples. Moscow also had the nuclear bomb, since the development of the Maïak nuclear complex and its first nuclear test in 1949, which dissuaded Washington from wanting to confront it directly.
Until the fall of the USSR in 1989, the two powers would compete to try to impose their model on the rest of the world. The launch, in 1957, of the Sputnik satellite orbiting the earth and the first space flight of Youri Gagarin in 1961 remained famous episodes of the successes of the USSR in the race for technological prestige. In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis brought the two powers to the brink of direct confrontation. Moscow was thinking of installing nuclear missile ramps in Cuba, directly threatening the American territory, a few miles away. Washington posing a war ultimatum, Nikita Kroutchev backtracked. He was defeated two years later by Leonid Brezhnev and all the Stalinist dinosaurs who did not allow him to criticize the "little father of the people".
Brezhnev, and the rigid conservatives members of the party, caused a considerable technological and economic backwardness to USSR. Despite attempts to liberalize economy by Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin, the Soviet economy was stagnating. The USSR lost ground in the face of the dynamism of the Western economy.
In 1979, Moscow fell into the trap that Washington has stretched out in Afghanistan and bogged down in a war that it could not win. KGB men of influence, conscious of internal and external problems, then forced Mikhail Gorbachev to power in 1985, hoping that he could quickly implement the economic and democratic reforms needed for the survival of the USSR. But the political reforms ("Glasnost"), a prerequisite for economic reforms ("Perestroika"), dragged the USSR to its fall in 1990. It was the revenge of the people chained by the Russians since the time of the Tsars.
In Russia, supporters of democratic reform, with Boris Yeltsin at the forefront, were opposed to conservatives who attempted a coup but failed. On 21 December 1991, the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU) and the Warsaw Pact were dissolved. Boris Yeltsin organized a Federation of Independent States, first with Ukraine and Belarus, then gradually with all the former Soviet republics. The Baltic States preferred to continue their journey independently.
Russia now occupied the permanent seat of the former USSR on the UN Security Council, but was unable to assume the former soviet role of world superpower. Washington, continuing its enterprise of destruction of the ex-rival power, broke down its new Islamic map: Muslim Chechnya declared its independence. It was the Achillean heel of the Central Asian republics, the former Ottoman territories, which was targeted. Moscow, indecisive, bogged down in a failed internal war that led to the autonomy of Chechnya.
Igor Gaidar imposed a brutal liberal reform that depressed prices, plunged more than a quarter of the population into unemployment, and delivered the state enterprises to some "oligarchs", former apparatchiks who enriched themselves formidably. It was the IMF and the EBRD, inspired by the economic ideology of the Chicago School (Jeffrey Sachs), that embedded the government of Boris Yeltsin. In 1993, a new coup attempt was aborted by the intervention of the army which saved the Yeltsin government. Boris Yeltsin, a notorious alcoholic, was surrounded by US agents who provided him with vodka and advices: Russia joined NATO peace program. Washington danced on the corpse of the USSR.
Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov succeeded in stabilizing the ruble currency and putting in place economic reforms. He opposed the war in Yugoslavia, against the Serb allies, decided by Washington, under cover of NATO. Russia, in trying to defend its historical allies, the Serbs, regained the sense of its history. It must be remembered that Russia, in 1941, had already entered the war to come to the aid of Serbia. But Yeltsin, under American control, dismissed Primakov in 1999.
The same year, Chechen Islamic rebels invaded the neighboring territory of Dagestan. President Yeltsin, sick, wet to the neck in the corruption scandals of his government, negotiated with KGB influential men to be able to withdraw from political life without being worried.
The man who would replace him had already been chosen: Vladimir Putin, a former agent of the KGB. He took the presidency as a temporary secretary. Its first action of brilliance was an energetic military campaign in Chechnya. He gained immediate popularity with Russian population, who was impatient to see a strong man in command of the Russian state. Vladimir Putin won general elections in 2000. His government goal was to restore the state and the economy. Russian state regained control of gas and oil production, as prices werer rising. Russia experienced a strong growth. Energy revenues were used to develop the banking sector, insurance and large-scale distribution, major suppliers of jobs. Domestic consumption was increasing. Vladimir Putin went also on the international scene, in Iraq, Belarus and Ukraine.
Russian army, despite the decline of its morale in the late 1990s, has just over one million committed and 2 million reservists. Russian army ensures the security of its immense territory and counteract alien operations on its borders. Moscow must particularly watch the straits of Turkey, Denmark and Japan, necessary for its trade and its access to the seas of the globe.
In October 2002, a terrorist attack by Chechen Islamists, who took 800 people hostage in a Moscow theater, turned to slaughter. 120 hostages and terrorists were killed when the security forces launched the assault. Moscow did not negotiate. Kyrgyzstan agreed to host a Russian military base in 2003 to counter Islamic terrorists who were beginning to infiltrate Central Asia.
In October of that year, the oil company Yukos boss, the billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky, was arrested for tax evasion, imprisoned 10 years before leaving in exile. Putin put oligarchs at the pace, especially those who meddled in politics.
In September 2004, more than 300 people were killed during the siege of the Beslan school in the north of Ossetia, taken as hostage by Chechen and Ingushetian Islamist terrorists. The following year, the head of the Chechen separatists, Aslan Maskhadov, was killed by the Russian security forces. The Chechen Islamist chief-terrorist, Shamil Basayev, would be eliminated in July 2006.
Muslim terrorism problems remains very important. Many attacks from the South Caucasus have unfortunately enlaced the daily life of the Russians for ten years.
In 2006, Vladimir Putin restricted the activities of "non-governmental" organizations operating in Russia, the aim being to neutralize the destabilizing potential of these entities, funded by American or global funds (such as George Soros'). Provisions were reinforced in July 2012 by a law which clearly classified these organizations, financed in offshore, "agents from abroad".
In August 2008, Georgian government troops attacked Georgian pro-Russian separatists in South Ossetia. Moscow intervened militarily to establish the independence of the Russian-speaking territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
In August 2012, three members of the rock band "Pussy Riot" were arrested and sentenced to two years' imprisonment for an anti-Putin challenge in a Moscow cathedral. The US and European media and politicians protested for violation of human rights, but Russians approved the sanction.
In May 2014, the Russian army seized Crimea, which had been given by Stalin to Ukraine. The population, Russian-speaking and Russophile, voted her coming back to Russia. In punishment, Americans imposed Russia eviction from the G8 of the industrialized countries. Economic sanctions against Moscow are still driving down the country's growth.
In September 2015, Russia intervened militarily in Syria, both to save the Bashar al-Assad regime and to keep its only maritime base in the Mediterranean and a transit route for its pipelines. Russia is thus again opposed to the globalist plan, new terrorist attacks were sent in retaliation.
Since May 2014, a 30-year gas supply agreement has been signed with Beijing. Russian officials realized, with the New Silk Road, that economic future was in the east. Russia turned towards east, leaving Western Europe to its masters and its decline.